Shandong Engineering Research Center
Shandong Engineering Research Center
Keywords: Large-scale ground power station | Distributed industrial and commercial | Photovoltaic poverty alleviation | Distributed household
Photovoltaic power station refers to a photovoltaic power generation system composed of solar energy and electronic components such as crystalline silicon plate and inverter, which is connected with the power grid and transmits power to the power grid. Photovoltaic power station is a green power development energy project encouraged by the state.
It can be divided into independent power generation system with battery and grid connected power generation system without battery. Solar power generation is divided into photothermal power generation and photovoltaic power generation. At present, the commercialized solar energy refers to solar photovoltaic power generation.
Photovoltaic power generation products are mainly used in three aspects: one is to provide power for non electric field; Second, solar daily electronic products, such as all kinds of solar chargers, solar street lamps and all kinds of solar lawn lamps; Third, grid connected power generation, which has been widely promoted and implemented in developed countries. By 2009, China's grid connected power generation has not been fully promoted. However, part of the power for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is provided by solar power generation and wind power generation.
On December 4, 2013, Longyangxia water light complementary 320 MW grid connected photovoltaic power station, the world's largest water light complementary photovoltaic power station located in Gonghe County photovoltaic power generation Park, Qinghai Province, officially started grid connected operation. Using water light complementary power generation, the problem of poor stability of photovoltaic power generation was solved from the power supply side.
As early as 1839, Becqurel, a French scientist, found that light can produce potential differences between different parts of semiconductor materials. This phenomenon was later called "photovoltaic effect", or "photovoltaic effect" 。 In 1954, American scientists chabin and Pearson made practical monocrystalline silicon solar cells for the first time in Bell Laboratories, and gave birth to a practical photovoltaic power generation technology that converts solar energy into electric energy.
After the 1970s, with the development of modern industry, the global energy crisis and air pollution have become increasingly prominent. The traditional fuel energy is decreasing day by day, and the harm to the environment has become increasingly prominent. At the same time, about 2 billion people in the world can not get normal energy supply. At this time, the world has turned its attention to renewable energy, hoping that renewable energy can change human energy structure and maintain long-term sustainable development. Among them, solar energy has become the focus of attention because of its unique advantages. Abundant solar radiant energy is an important energy, which is inexhaustible, pollution-free, cheap and free to be used by human beings. The energy of solar energy reaching the ground every second is as high as 800000kw. If 0.1% of the solar energy on the earth's surface is converted into electric energy, the conversion rate is 5%, and the annual power generation can reach 5.6% × 1012 kwh, equivalent to 40 times the world's energy consumption. It is precisely because of these unique advantages of solar energy that after the 1980s, the types of solar cells have been increasing, the scope of application has become wider and wider, and the market scale has gradually expanded.
Since the 1990s, photovoltaic power generation has developed rapidly. By 2006, more than 10 megawatt photovoltaic power generation systems and 6 megawatt networked photovoltaic power stations have been built in the world. The United States is the first country to formulate the development plan of photovoltaic power generation. In 1997, the "million roof" plan was put forward. Japan launched the new sunshine program in 1992. By 2003, the production of photovoltaic modules in Japan accounted for 50% of the world, and four of the world's top 10 manufacturers were in Japan. The new renewable energy law of Germany stipulates the on grid price of photovoltaic power generation, which greatly promotes the development of photovoltaic market and industry, making Germany the fastest developing country of photovoltaic power generation in the world after Japan. Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, Finland and other countries have also formulated photovoltaic development plans and invested heavily in technology development and accelerating the process of industrialization.
The average annual growth rate of photovoltaic modules in the world was about 15% from 1990 to 2005. In the late 1990s, it developed more rapidly. In 1999, the production of photovoltaic modules reached 200 MW. The efficiency of commercial batteries has increased from 10% ~ 13% to 13% ~ 15%, and the production scale has developed from 1 ~ 5 MW / year to 5 ~ 25 MW / year, and is expanding to 50 MW or even 100 MW. The production cost of photovoltaic modules is reduced to less than $3 / watt.
The photovoltaic industry survey in 2006 shows that the annual development rate of the photovoltaic industry will remain above 30% by 2010. Annual sales will increase from $7 billion in 2004 to $30 billion in 2010. Many established photovoltaic manufacturing companies have also turned from loss to profit.
It is predicted that solar photovoltaic power generation will occupy an important position in world energy consumption in the 21st century. It will not only replace some conventional energy, but also become the main body of world energy supply. It is estimated that by 2030, renewable energy will account for more than 30% of the total energy structure, and solar photovoltaic power generation will account for more than 10% of the world's total power supply; By 2040, renewable energy will account for more than 50% of the total energy consumption, and solar photovoltaic power generation will account for more than 20% of the total electricity; By the end of the 21st century, renewable energy will account for more than 80% of the energy structure and solar power generation will account for more than 60%. These figures are enough to show the development prospect of solar photovoltaic industry and its important strategic position in the energy field.
In early July 2015, Dongyang Hengdian dongci 20.7 MW roof photovoltaic power station project in Zhejiang Province passed the acceptance of the national development and Reform Commission and was filed as a voluntary greenhouse gas emission reduction project. It can participate in the transaction of greenhouse gas emissions in the future.
The roof photovoltaic power station located on the roof of the teaching building of Shaanxi University of science and technology is the largest roof photovoltaic power station with the largest installed capacity in domestic colleges and universities. It has been constructed since November 2012 and officially connected to the grid in February 2013. So far, it has generated more than 1.5 million kwh, reduced more than 1500 tons of carbon dioxide, and generated more than 600000 kwh of power per year.
On December 2, 2015, United photovoltaic announced that it would acquire two photovoltaic power station projects with a total installed capacity of about 20 MW. The two photovoltaic power stations are from Wujiaqu City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Tangshan City, Hebei Province. They are expected to be connected to the grid and put into operation at the end of December and the first quarter of 2016. The total amount does not exceed RMB 356 million, which will be appropriated with internal resources and external financing.